Albert R. Mann Library
Trout formations in a winding stream

The first question which presents itself is, “Shall I fish up stream or down?” To this I reply, with all the emphasis of which I am capable, “Upstream, by all means, whenever possible.” There is every reason for it, but here are a few, briefly put: (1.) Trout invariably lie with their heads up stream - ergo take their food in that position. (2.) Trout cannot see the angler more than a few feet behind them, whilst they can and do see many yards in front. (3.) The vibration of the water, caused by the movement of the advancing angler, if wading, does not penetrate up stream as it does down stream. (4.) The water is not “roiled” or muddled for the fish by wading up stream.

John Harrington Keane, Fly-Fishing and Fly-Making, 1891